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    Baby care

    With the birth of each child mothers have many questions on the care of the newborn by month. And rightly so! After all, the child's health from the conception up to the age of reason is completely dependent on their parents. Being in your tummy, the child was under heavy guard placenta, which protects it from viruses and infections.

    Baby care

    Hygienic care of the newborn child - this is where should now start your day. After the first few months your baby will be an intense period of adaptation to the environment, and daily hygiene to help the child overcome his painful.

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Sleep is a definite

Depending on the environmental conditions and upbringing of the child may experience a delay normal development of higher nervous activity.On psychological development is also affected, it is often significantly delaying child's illness.In this connection requires a comprehensive child care, especially at the beginning of his life.Sleep Sleeping child is one of the components of its physiological activity, which provides a normal rhythm processes of higher nervous activity, such as metabolism, physical development, growth and maturation.Sleep is a definite result of the preceding period of wakefulness, but, in turn, becomes the basis or condition for the normal life of the child in subsequent wakefulness.Improperly organized wakefulness or child's illness may cause a breach of usefulness and effectiveness of sleep and sleep disorders are the cause of the child's lack of activity during wakefulness.

After 4 years

5-3 hours.After 4 years of naps, many children can not save.One should not forget that you must try to keep naps in children 5-6 years of age, which will preserve the health of the child and the right to form his daily regimen, which in turn will contribute to its normal neuropsychological development.Natural need for sleep in children of different ages Senses Vision Bookmark eye occurs on the third week of fetal development.By the birth of a child process of eye development and visual analyzer is not yet complete, since the final formation of the vision needed stimulation light stimulus.In the first hours and days of life peculiar to children farsightedness.Over the years, the degree of farsightedness decreases.

Then diet gradually

The course begins with clinical nutrition diet number 1a, which designate no more than 10-12 days.Then diet gradually expanded to number 16, which is also nominated for 10-12 days, after which the patient is transferred to a diet number 1.Diet number 2 is recommended for the creation of normal digestion.Exclude rude mechanical stimuli of the oral mucosa, esophagus, stomach and intestines, as well as foods and dishes, adversely affecting the secretory and motor functions of the intestine.The content of vitamins A, B in the diet is doubled due to the violation of their balance in the body, significantly increased the rate of vitamin E and C (4-5 times as compared with the physiological norm).Frequency of meals - 4-6 times during the day.Indications for use: n a r y w e n y = y n to n and u a g e a n i n g t o a n; y l y w h e n e w e l y d o n o h - k and w h e n o r o n and o f c a p e n y.

Acute (simple) bronchitis

Disease pathogens are viruses (parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial and adenoviruses), bacterial flora, mycoplasma.Contributing factors may be vaporous gas and chemicals, allergens, animal and vegetable origin, tobacco smoke, foreign bodies caught in the bronchi in as thermal factors (cooling, inhalation of cold air).The clinical picture.Isolated sharp, obstructive, recurrent bronchitis and bronchiolitis.Acute (simple) bronchitis - a common form of respiratory lesions in children in which the signs of airway obstruction are not expressed.The disease often begins gradually, with deterioration of the general condition and fever.Older children complain of weakness, headache, a feeling of tightness and burning sensation behind the breastbone (at traheobronhite).


It is carried out under emergency conditions, and as a routine investigation.Indications for investigation in case of emergency: s and n o m p e k and w h e n o n th e p r o x o and d m o s t u; to l and n and h e i s e and p r o s s i n y "o s t r o d o w t and on a"; w e l y d o n o h-k and w h e n s e c o p o in t h e e n i.C o and s to a n a n a n o l o m a y and a corollary of a n th: n d o r o p e n i n a a n o m and n and p and s and t in I and w e l y d o n o h - k and w h e n o r o m p a T A; W o l and in Well and of te; s and n o m p e r a t o s; n d o r o p e n e n o p y and x of L and.Study usually begins with an overview of fluoroscopy abdomen and then offering the patient drink barium sulfate or other opacifying agents, and radiography is executed.Initially investigated the esophagus.

: 48 calories, 1 g protein, 11 g carbohydrate, 0. 3 g fat, 1 g fiber, 65 mg sodium, protein

These parents

Not that you heard it for the first time, but look around! Everywhere there are surly, concentrated only on himself, not the fun loving parents who think that it is better to spend the time and money that will go to the organization of a holiday on something useful for the child

But he did not spe shield

As Peter most of his time to the school and samoobrazovatel Nome process, the girl obsessed by his attention rather late

G in th e h and: p r i k o l e t and with

G in th e h and: p r i k o l e t and with h e a d o m.Color Black or tarry: n and p a g e l y d o n o h - k and w h e n u t p o in to about t h e e n i x, T e m n o p to o-and h n e s in th: n p and n e d o s t a t o h n o s t and w e l y d o h n o r o n and o f c a p e n i; Mr.and l o s t n o d e and n e n c and d; to about l and t e with h e a d o m; from off to on p e n n o d e c a to y and u and u and s t l o s t of th k and w k and; n of a s w e n o n th e c a p e r p o n of th f u n to u and u t l o s t of th k and w k and; h e a d and x.C e n t o - to about p and h n e a s th: n and p i s p o n e n o d e c a to y and u and u and s t l o s t of th k and w k and; to p and a n o t c a s th; p r k o n t e and a and b s i s s s n y and m.

Now he just throws

On the other hand, he still understands much more than he can express

"Where does

You must teach your children right television, To example, fizzy drinks and other accompanied by colorful images of fruit, but often they contain fruit or in trace amounts, or not found at all.- Your task is to help the child recognize and buy it fresh, wholesome, whole foods."Where does my food?" A good way to answer this question - is to engage children in the process of obtaining and cooking.Children ages ex sun just love picking berries or apples to help take care of an orchard and vegetable garden, go to restaurants, markets, farms and even food processing plants.At first glance, uncomplicated jar is able to give the child an understanding of the origin of the food.Your child can make sure how much the taste of the product, torn straight from the garden, from the taste of the product, which was brought from afar and lay on shelf a few weeks before you get to your table.

Mixtures of partially

Many parents have the impression that the mixture - breast-milk substitutes are inferior in quality to last

Despite attitudinal

The question of what constitutes an ideal diet causes weight cn Hur and is particularly relevant for the "newly" mothers.However, vegetable, t.e.vegan diet with vitamin Bi 2 will provide you with all the necessary nutrients and also help maintain a slim figure and enhance the protective functions of the body against disease.Despite attitudinal bias against plant-based diet, it contains the amount of protein, which is necessary to the human body (for more on this - in chapter 3).Babies get a basic dose of calcium from breast milk, so breastfeeding is important to consume large amounts of foods rich in this mineral.Best calcium is absorbed from green vegetables such as broccoli, sprouts kale and mustard, as well as legumes: F salt, peas , lentils.

Thrush Fungal

Always remember that the most important principle in the care of the sick baby is empathy, but not suffering

By 6-7 months

Anatomical and physiological features of the skull of the child with the least allow the fetus to pass traumatization during childbirth, as can be displaced in the period in which no damage to the brain substance, as well as increase the volume of the cranium with an increase in intracranial pressure.Spine deprived newborn physiological curves.If you hold the head appears cervical flexion.By 6-7 months of age, when the child begins to sit, bend formed thoracic, lumbar bending becomes noticeable after 9-12 months of birth.Throughout childhood spine fixation is inadequate and inappropriate muscle tone easily occur changes in the spinal column, which may lead to a breach of posture.

Pulse newborn

Transition to pryamostoyaniyu and walking conditions hemodynamic changes, contributing to a more intensive development of the venous system of the lower half of the body.Pulse newborn aritmichen characterized unequal length and non-uniformity of individual pulse wave and the spaces between them.Frequency pulse newborn normal is 120-140 beats per minute, which is much more than an adult (adult 60-70 beats per minute).This is due to the fact that children more intense metabolism and the relatively late development of vagal innervation (vagus nerve-coordinates the work of the human heart).Child's transition to a vertical position and the beginning of motor activity contribute to slowing of heart rate.In the first months of life pulse rate slows slightly in his sleep, the child one year, the difference is about 10 beats per minute.

Child raises his head

baby lying on his stomach.Let it embrace your index fingers at others maintain brush.Take your hands out to the side to full extension, for those straightened child hands closer to the head at ear level.child raises his head back-up, resting feet, stands on the stake or, then - on straight legs.Breast Massage Exercise for the development of distance is on the table, face or back to an adult.Stimulation of a step in the age of months, with the support under the arms, at the age of - months - with the support of the elbows of both hands, with the brush .

The main direction

This technique is used in children weighing less than 1200 g at birth for the first 1.5-2 weeks.When powered by gavage children less tired.When feeding through a tube should be closely monitored for the appearance of sucking reflex and gradually replace part feedings by gavage feedings from a bottle with a nipple.Subsequently, the probe is fully removed and recommended switching to human milk feeding.The main direction of feeding a premature baby is the desire for complete translation into breast feeding breast milk.With a weight of 2000-2300 g preterm infant and maintaining his sucking reflex recommended his transfer to bottle feeding breastfeeding.Food for older children After the first year of life the child is transferred to normal diet, because the digestive system and an enzyme involved in the metabolism, regulates the function of the nervous system has reached the required level of development.

Sweetener U h. tablespoons

Normal values: In zrast

Normal values: In zrast Wed ednee value Ex Edelev 12 wee.11.4 x 10 9 / L 6,0-17,5 x 10 9 / L 4 g ode 9.1 x 10 9 / L 5,5-15,5 x 10 9 / L In zrast Wed ednee value Ex Edelev 6 p er 8.5 x 10 9 / L 5,0-15,5 x 10 9 / L Yul is 8.1 x 10 9 / L 4,5-13,5 x 10 9 / L 21 g of one 7.4 x 10 9 / L 4,5-11,0 x 10 9 / L Taken tall 7.8 x 10 9 / L 4.4 - 11.3 x 10 9 / L Clinical diagnostic value of Enhancement: and n f e kHz and and ( g p and b to about a s e , a and p y with n s e, b and a t e r and l and s n s e and Dr.) - in about a n a l and t l e s n s e s about with a m I n and I (and a ton and a t i s l o y in n o - n and m o d e n d n o f e l s); Kozlov to a h e s t a n n e s e n o in o o b r a h o a n i; m p and m s t to a ays; l e d to o s s; y p e m and i; p e r y l s t a t e s th a t a and i and d p e n a l and n as well and with a t e r o and d n u t r o r m o n o c.

Initially the skin

The earliest manifestations of diathesis refers milk crust (of which you mentioned above), which, appearing first on the head and above the eyebrows, cheeks subsequently strikes

Fortunately, today

Study of children in the age group of 8 to 10 years with a slightly higher blood cholesterol level showed that a diet low in fat helps to reduce cholesterol in the body, while providing all iron accumulation and normal mental health.Vegan diet brings many other positive health outcomes fat, with lots of vitamins and fiber, and no cholesterol) throughout life.Fortunately, today many pediatricians who understand the importance of proper nutrition for healthy children rovya recommend diet be based on "Four new food groups" - Of course, it is not any diet, it's just an entirely different view of th power is fundamentally different from the one on which most of us grew.Children who are enrolled in primary school, often eaten outside the home, and it can cause some concern.During this period, your baby will begin to realize that many of his other Gia eat very differently, not as healthy food many of his friends will absorb all these dishes "in the original.

Displaying enema. Gastric

Compounds of iron

With a lack of iron salts in children may develop anemia

Most susceptible

Advisable parallel introduction of normal human immunoglobulin.Measures in the hearth Polio isolated.Of contact monitored for 21 days.Meningococcal disease Meningococcal disease - acute bacterial infection caused by meningococcus, characterized by a variety of clinical forms (meningococcal meningitis, meningokokktsemiya, meningococcal nasopharyngitis, etc.), often leads to the death of the patient.The route of transmission - airborne.Most susceptible to the disease children first 5 years of life.Source of infection - a sick man or bacillicarriers.The most dangerous in the patient with regard to the epidemic catarrhal symptoms (meningococcal nasopharyngitis).

Tech taking urinalysis

Tech taking urinalysis H and to a n y n e and n and l and s and n e o b o x e and m o p r e d u p p e d and t b e s p e n to a, h t o m o h a b e r e t i t y m p o n a t o u and to and s "With r c e n th e p o p u and u ' m on h and in to about l and h e a t e in 100-150 liters.B e h e r o m and y m p o m p e r e d with a l e d in on a and n e m p e b e n o a d o n a g e n t u a t e l s n o n o m e s Sufficiency with i t e p l o d in g of about th with m s h a m .Co n n e r o t o t and s in h and s t u n d o with y y.Analysis of urine by Nechiporenko - quantification of the formed elements in the urine (leukocytes, erythrocytes, and cylinders).

Thus, the liver

In the postnatal period, the liver continues to grow, but the rate of increase in its weight behind the body weight.Thus, the liver weight doubled to 10-11 months.(Body weight triples), 2-3 years tripled to 7-8 years increased by 5 times.Due to the different rates of increase in liver weight and body in children during the first 5-7 years of life the lower edge of the liver always comes out from under the right costal margin and easily detectable.It typically protrudes 2-3 cm beyond the costal margin in the midclavicular line in the child of the first 3 years of life, and then by a smaller amount.

When this happens, you should

It is only logical that a child could choke on, or it could happen collapse (acute vascular insufficiency), shock without warning

Ability to move

Hence it is easy to understand that, from birth to six years for each subsequent month, the brain grows slower than C.for of the previous one.Needless to say that the earliest moments of life are in this regard and the most valuable.Firmly standing on their own feet, learned to walk, prankster is always in motion, his curiosity has no limits.This, on the one hand, brings a lot of joy to the kid himself and his parents lam, on the other hand - is a lot of unrest and trouble.It is important that the child was, if possible, free in its "of the Research FIR expeditions." Reasonable to remove all dangerous higher or valuable items than ever to pull up his little son or daughter.Ability to move is not inherited, but is formed as a function ing on the conditions in which the child grows.Why do some children can not crawl and immediately begin to walk, the other - and prefer to sit inactive, and others - begin to swim still in its infancy? Very, very much depends on the conscious attitudes of parents in the process of education.

The disease

Factors contributing to the development of glomerulonephritis may include pneumonia, ODS-BI, hypothermia.The disease develops in the presence of shear and formation of the immunological complex antigen - antibody, which circulate in the blood, are deposited on the membrane of the glomeruli, causing damage to the vascular wall lead to disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome.The membrane of the glomeruli with altered properties acts as an antigen, in response to which autoantibodies are formed against the body's own cells.The clinical picture Symptoms of intoxication - fever, malaise, weakness, headache, drowsiness, nausea, pale skin.

For 20 years there

S.state of Tennessee was conducted scientific research, which involved 1,700 pregnant women from the community veg Anov.Results showed that problems during pregnancy they occurred very rarely.For 20 years there was only one case associated with preeclampsia (late toxemia of pregnancy), which is accompanied by an increase in pressure, delayed kite organic liquid protein loss in the urine and a strong increase in weight.In By contrast, preeclampsia occurs in the U.S., at least 2% of all pregnant women.Also in this community of only one of hundreds of babies had retrieved by cesarean section, that does not go to any comparison with significantly higher rates in the general population.


Reactogenicity of acellular pertussis combination vaccines is much less than the corpuscular.Complications Anaphylaxis often develops during subsequent administration of the vaccine and is threatening complication.He develops a few minutes after administration of the vaccine, at least after 3 ^ 4:00.Clinical manifestations: sudden pallor, rarely cyanosis (bluish), cold sweats, weakness, lethargy, loss of consciousness, drop in blood pressure.Emergency Prehospital: Do l o w s and t b e p e n to a n and w to y e t to y with n p and n of a n i t s m n o w n s m o n a n o m p o n e r a y in g o l o y in a s t o p o n y ( on and s b e g and n and e and with n and p and q and a and p in o t s n x m a to c) in the s d a and n y t s n and w n w w h e n th with t s.

Urge to defecate

In infants the disease has its own characteristics, due to the specific immunity.The disease begins gradually with the increase of clinical symptoms during the first 3-4 days of illness, when there was a slight increase in body temperature, and decreased appetite.Fecal not lose fecal character and contain a large amount of mucus and greenery.Admixture of blood is rare.Moderately distended belly.Urge to defecate accompanied by anxiety, crying, twist legs straining child.Repeated vomiting and joining frequent stools lead to the rapid development of dehydration in violation of hemodynamics.

Stunting indicates

Attack stopped as suddenly as it had begun.Lag in the physical development of the child is one of the signs of the disease of the cardiovascular system.Stunting indicates chronic circulatory disorders and tissue nutrition.In children with heart disease in the future may develop chest deformity in the form of a protrusion in the heart.For suspected heart disease should pay great attention to the frequency and rhythm of breathing, intercostal indrawing presence with him.Change the color of the skin Circulatory failure is often accompanied by cyanotic (bluish) in the distal extremities: hands, feet, fingertips.At the same skin color and has a marble is always cold, clammy to the touch.

If she wants

Persuasion may take all morning, and you need to catch an appointment with the doctor

In some cases

Children says: lowering blood pressure, increased heart rate (tachycardia) may develop respiratory failure.In some cases there is paralysis of the soft palate, with its unilateral manifestation sky deviates in a healthy way, when there is a bilateral nasal tone of voice, throwing food and saliva into the nasopharynx, and difficulty in swallowing food.When toxic form of diphtheria oropharynx a marked intoxication, oropharyngeal edema and subcutaneous tissue of the neck.Temperature rises sharply in the first hours of the disease to 39-40 ° C.

Better not to buy domestic

Highchair and table are simply irreplaceable, when the baby starts to sit self ­ yours elf

Measure the temperature

Since the temperature of the body of a newborn baby is not constant, it must be regu larly measured in order to monitor the condition of the baby

A child could choke! What

Try to convince mischievous lie down for a while, offering him a particularly interesting igrush ­ ku, gently talking to him.But in any case you can not give him food, although some mothers try to distract the baby drying or Conference ­ that.A child could choke! What to do when combining massage and gymnastics can not? In this case it is better to move to the morning exercises, turning them into fun exercises.Massage can be done in the afternoon, when the baby had already run, played enough and particularly in need of mothering.Child quickly gets used to the routine and he will ask you to work out with him.FEATURES MASSAGE During the massage the child from one year to three years, special attention is paid to those parts of the body, the muscles that are most at] manual ultrasonic inspection associated with bipedal locomotion.

The growth of this

After birth, the higher pressure in the left atrium septum firmly presses both heart and they are fused together, closing the hole and forming oval final interatrial septum, which prevents the mixing of venous and arterial blood.Interventricular septum begins to grow also at the end of the 4th week of intrauterine development.First septum is not continuous - in the upper part of its retained interventricular foramen later overgrown.At the same time in the arterial trunk formed two rollers thickened endocardium (inner layer of the heart), which grow towards each other and merge into aortopulmonary septum, while creating the trunks of the aorta and pulmonary artery.The growth of this partition inside the ventricles leads to its confluence with the interventricular septum and the separation of the right and left heart in the fetus.Heart valve occurs after the formation of partitions.On the 5th week of pregnancy starts functioning primary circulatory system of the embryo.


Transmission of the virus from mother to fetus can cause the development of primary chronic viral hepatitis B.Hepatitis B Immunity after suffering a lifetime.susceptibility general.Once in the blood, virus settles on the hepatocyte, causing a change in its outer shell and penetrate inside the cells, where it multiplies and stands on its surface, getting back into the blood stream.Getting inside the hepatocyte, he calls it a violation of its life processes.In the process included immunological reactions involving the release of alien virus, but it happens and destruction of infected hepatocytes.

Then easily slap on the cheeks

"Hamster" Suggest your child take a few steps (-), puffing out his cheeks, as a hamster.Then easily slap on the cheeks - to let the air out of his mouth and just a little breathing nose."Blow on a dandelion" "The Crow" The child is placed, feet slightly apart and his arms.Is DIT arms wide to the sides like wings.Slowly lowers his hands and about wear and tear on the exhale, "karrr" maximum stretching sound "p".Exercise with flags Original position still in the lowered hands - pins.Child raises his hands through the side - breath down through the sides - exhale through a tube folded lips.Game "gurgling" Kid sitting in front of him - a glass (or bottle) with water in which rum - straw for cocktails.Teach your child how to blow a hundred fold through a straw to one long exhale came gurgling.

Sharply limit foods

Treatment Diet number 9 is rich in protein, but reduced the amount of carbohydrates.When assigning calorie diet consider diet, body weight of the child and its relation to ideal body energy expenditure.In the presence of concomitant obesity should be decreased caloric restriction diet contents therein not only carbohydrates, but also fats.From the diet completely eliminated sugar, honey, jam, candy, cakes, pies.Sharply limit foods rich in cholesterol (fatty meats, eggs).As substitutes confectionery can use special types of cookies, biscuits and other products containing xylitol, sorbitol, fructose.Recommended products containing slowly absorbed carbohydrates (brown bread) and also rich in vitamins (fresh vegetables, unsweetened fruit).Optimal fractional considered, in small portions, 6 mult diet (breakfast, lunch and dinner should be at 25% of daily calories, lunch - 10%, second dinner -15%).Mealtimes should be clearly fixed.

When gastric

Usually children Suchat legs.Most often this occurs when you flatulence (flatulence), and passing flatus children calm.Of diarrheal illness allocated gastric and intestinal form.When gastric dyspepsia (indigestion) in children have belching, nausea, heartburn, vomiting.As a rule, they reflect the dysmotility of the gastrointestinal tract, so that their appearance is not a specific symptom of any disease.Belching occurs against a background of increasing intragastric pressure due to lack of cardiac sphincter.It may be indicative of esophagitis and gastroduodenal pathology (esophagitis, hiatal hernia, gastric cardia insufficiency, chronic gastritis, gastro, peptic ulcer disease).

If this child

During active physical training children then lose a lot of moisture.If this child does not consume enough water, the result will be a strong dehydration.Signs of dehydration in the early stages are convulsions, decreased muscle strength and fatigue, dry mouth, headaches, dizziness and nausea.Aggravated signs of dehydration will decrease body's ability to regulate body temperature, confusion in the head, Mr.euklyuzhest movements and fainting.that become a winner or commits race in cross-country, his thoughts are certainly not about to moisturize the body in a timely manner.

If the kid can offer

to the rear, fat, asks the other breast and she also drinks from the front only young to when he wants to drink


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  • A child could choke! What
  • "Where does
  • Urge to defecate
  • Ability to move
  • Stunting indicates
  • If she wants
  • : 48 calories, 1 g protein, 11 g carbohydrate, 0. 3 g fat, 1 g fiber, 65 mg sodium, protein
  • Sweetener U h. tablespoons
  • Compounds of iron
  • The disease